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    30 November 2020, Volume 29 Issue 11
    Others
    Preface for the publication of Special Issue of Commemoration of the 100th Birthday of Academician Zhicen Lou
    Demin Zhou
    2020, 29(11):  753-754. 
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    Preface for the publication of Special Issue of Commemoration of the 100th Birthday of Academician Zhicen Lou.
    Reviews
    Phytochemistry, biological properties and quality control of Chuanxiong Rhizoma: a review
    Jinhui Shi, Ruiyue Li, Siyu Yang, Hongmei Zhang
    2020, 29(11):  755-779.  DOI: 10.5246/jcps.2020.11.070
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    Chuanxiong Rhizoma is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine in the past 2000 years. Chuanxiong Rhizoma is composed of volatile oils, phthalide lactones, phenolic acids, polysaccharides and other compounds. To date, more than 149 compounds in Chuanxiong Rhizoma have been isolated and identified, and some of them have been reported to possess promising biological properties on cardiovascular and central nervous system disorders besides their anti-cancer and antioxidant effects. Modulation of inflammatory mediators and apoptotic factors are believed to contribute to its bioactivities. Analytical methods, such as HPLC, GC and UPLC, are employed for qualitative evaluation of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. In this work, harvest period, growing habitat, processing method and storage, which can affect the quality of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, were also discussed. Comprehensive quality control methods should be developed to ensure the safety, quality and efficacy use of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Herein, we collected and analyzed the literature of Chuanxiong Rhizoma published on CNKI, ScienceDirect, Springer link, Wiley and PubMed in past two decades, and up-to-date information of Chuanxiong Rhizoma was provided in this paper. We suggested ligustilide, butylidenephthalide and total senkyunolides as the chemical markers to evaluate the quality of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Additionally, the influences of soil conditions and processing methods on Chuanxiong Rhizoma as future research perspectives should also be further assessed.
    The regulatory effects of mulberry leaf and its extract on intestinal function
    Yawen Wang, Xiaofeng Duan, Xiaoxiao Cheng, Miaoxin Zhang, Li Li, Ding Zhao
    2020, 29(11):  780-792.  DOI: 10.5246/jcps.2020.11.071
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    Since ancient times, mulberry leaf has a prominent intestinal regulatory effect, and the close relationship between intestinal diseases and other diseases has attracted more and more attention. This article reviewed the relevant articles on the mulberry leaf in recent years and summarized the research progress of mulberry leaf’s biological activities and their effects on human intestinal regulation and the corresponding mechanisms. Multiple components in the mulberry leaf can individually or synergistically affect the human intestine, directly and indirectly promote the digestion, absorption, and transport function of the small intestine, adjust the balance of the flora, enhance the barrier function of the intestinal mucosa, improve the immunity of the part, and facilitate the intestine recovery from illness.
    Original articles
    Detection of minor constituents in TongMai Granules using NP×RP off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with orbitrap mass spectrometry
    Lulu Xu, Zhanpeng Shang, Yue Chai, Yang Zhang, Rong Yu, Min Ye, Xue Qiao
    2020, 29(11):  793-803.  DOI: 10.5246/jcps.2020.11.072
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    TongMai Granules is a Chinese medicine patent drug to treat cardiovascular diseases. It is prepared from the water extract of Dan-shen, Chuan-xiong and Ge-gen. The main compounds of TongMai Granules are isoflavone glycosides, isoflavones, and phenolic acids. However, it is difficult to detect low-polar compounds such as tanshinones and phthalides though they may also contribute to the therapeutic effect. In this work, an off-line two-dimensional chromatography method was developed to enrich the minor constituents in TongMai Granules. The extract was subjected to an SEP-PAK silica SPE column and eluted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate–methanol (6:1, v/v), and methanol, successively. The three fractions were then analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/orbitrap-MS). The isoflavones from Ge-gen, phenolic acids from Dan-shen and phthalides from Chuan-xiong were distributed in different fractions. A total of 131 compounds, including 59 from Ge-gen, 26 from Dan-shen, 43 from Chuan-xiong, and 3 common ones from Dan-shen and Chuan-xiong were tentatively identified. Among them, 26 compounds were identified by comparing with reference standards. This study set a good example for comprehensive analysis of the constituents in traditional Chinese medicine formula.
    Determination and pharmacokinetic study of p-hydroxyphenethyl anisate following intravenous and oral administration in rats by RP-HPLC method
    Xiuwei Yang, Youbo Zhang, Wei Xu
    2020, 29(11):  804-812.  DOI: 10.5246/jcps.2020.11.073
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    In the present study, we developed a rapid and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the quantification of p-hydroxyphenethyl anisate (HPA), one of the main bioactive constituents of the roots and rhizomes ofNotopterygium incisumand N. franchetii, in rat plasma after an intravenous (20 mg/kg, i.v.) and an intragastrical (200 mg/kg,i.g.) administration to rats, respectively. The method involved a plasma clear-up step using liquid-liquid extraction by EtOAc, followed by RP-HPLC separation and detection. Separation of HPAwas performed on an analytical DiamonsilTM ODS C18 column with the mobile phase of MeOH–H2O at ratios of 75:25 (v/v) for i.v. and 70:30 (v/v) for i.g. administration. The flow-rate was 1.0 mL/min, and UV detection was performed at 256 nm. The calibration curves were linear over the ranges of 0.05–5.0 μg/mL (r2 = 0.9984) for i.v. and 0.5–10.0 μg/mL (r2 = 0.9995) for i.g. administrationin rat plasma. The extraction recoveries were in the range of 82.01%–87.97%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were between 1.71% and 3.99%, with accuracies ranging from 91.22% to 110.5%. The absolute bioavailability of an orally administered HPA in rats was about 48.17%. The developed method was suitable for the determination and pharmacokinetic studyof HPA in rat plasma.
    Flavonoid C-glycosides from the seeds of Hovenia dulcis Thunb.
    Fangfang Xu, Biao Sun, Xiaoqi Zhang, Bo Liu
    2020, 29(11):  813-818.  DOI: 10.5246/jcps.2020.11.074
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    Ten known flavonoid C-glycosides identified as 2′′-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl isovitexin (1), spinosin (2), 6′′′-acetyl spinosin (3), 6′′′-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-2′′O-β-D-glucopyranosyl isovitexin (4), 6′′′-p-hydroxy-cinnamoyl spinosin (5), 6′′′-(E)-feruloyl O-β-D-glucopyranosyl isovitexin (6), isospinosin (7), isovitexin (8), swertisin (9), swertiajaponin (10) were purified from the seeds of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic data analysis and comparison with previous literature. All compounds were obtained from H. dulcis for the first time. 
    Others
    Academician Zhicen Lou and the Discipline of Pharmacognosy in Peking University
    Shaoqing Cai
    2020, 29(11):  819-822. 
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    Academician Zhicen Lou and the Discipline of Pharmacognosy in Peking University.
    Memoir of My Mentor Zhicen Lou
    Pengfei Tu
    2020, 29(11):  823-827. 
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    Memoir of My Mentor Zhicen Lou.
    Commemoration of the 100th Birthday of Academician Zhicen Lou—A poem in memory of Academician Zhicen Lou by Alumnus Wei Zhang
    Wei Zhang
    2020, 29(11):  828-828. 
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    Commemoration of the 100th Birthday of Academician Zhicen Lou—A poem in memory of Academician Zhicen Lou by Alumnus Wei Zhang.