Chuanxiong Rhizoma is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine in the past 2000 years. Chuanxiong Rhizoma is composed of volatile oils, phthalide lactones, phenolic acids, polysaccharides and other compounds. To date, more than 149 compounds in Chuanxiong Rhizoma have been isolated and identified, and some of them have been reported to possess promising biological properties on cardiovascular and central nervous system disorders besides their anti-cancer and antioxidant effects. Modulation of inflammatory mediators and apoptotic factors are believed to contribute to its bioactivities. Analytical methods, such as HPLC, GC and UPLC, are employed for qualitative evaluation of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. In this work, harvest period, growing habitat, processing method and storage, which can affect the quality of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, were also discussed. Comprehensive quality control methods should be developed to ensure the safety, quality and efficacy use of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Herein, we collected and analyzed the literature of Chuanxiong Rhizoma published on CNKI, ScienceDirect, Springer link, Wiley and PubMed in past two decades, and up-to-date information of Chuanxiong Rhizoma was provided in this paper. We suggested ligustilide, butylidenephthalide and total senkyunolides as the chemical markers to evaluate the quality of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Additionally, the influences of soil conditions and processing methods on Chuanxiong Rhizoma as future research perspectives should also be further assessed.