Bupleurum chinense is a genuine medicinal material in Shanxi Province, and planting B. chinense is one of the main sources for local farmers to increase their income. In B. chinense cultivation, wheat-B. chinense, maize-B. chinense and soybean-B. chinense are commonly used as multiple cropping patterns. In the present study, we studied the effects of three different multiple cropping patterns on N, P and K levels of soil, photosynthetic parameters, agronomic characteristics, saikosaponin A, C and D contents, yield and economic benefits of B. chinense. The results showed that the soybean-B. chinense multiple cropping pattern was beneficial to the enrichment of N in the soil, thus promoting photosynthetic parameters, growth, saikosaponin accumulation, yield and economic benefits of B. chinense. It is suggested that soybean-B. chinense multiple cropping was an appropriate multiple cropping pattern for local cultivation of B. chinense.